5 Principles for Choosing Woodworking Router Bits

Published On: October 14, 2020

Router bits are widely used in woodworking. No matter for personal use or used on machine process, router bits are high efficient tools. Especially carbide router bits. With good wear resistance and long service life, carbide router bits have been used in home and factory. But what is the accordance for choosing router bits? Price matters but not the main reason. Here we collect 5 principles for choosing woodworking router bits as follows.


1. Material to be cut by router bits

No matter what kind of tools you are going to use, the first thing we should cocern is the material to be processed. The material decides your tools’ materials. And it is also worked on woodworking router bits. After all, what we are going to process is not just wood.

Wood cutting objects can be mainly divided into solid wood and wood-based composites, and solid wood can be divided into soft, hard and modified materials treated wood, etc. Wood composite materials include plywood, veneer laminated timber, particleboard, oriented strand board, flake board, gypsum particleboard, cement particle board, hard fibreboard, medium density fibreboard(MDF), high density fibreboard, core board, glued timber, etc. There are also some wood or wood composite material work pieces veneered on one or both sides.

Wood composite material is a composite material composed of wood monomers, such as veneer, shavings or fibers. They are mixed together under certain temperature and pressure by adhesives. Its properties are determined by wood monomers, arrangement of chips and properties of adhesives. Cutting properties will also show difference because of their structure and the proportion and nature of additives. For example, MDF is nearly isotropic, cutting resistance is almost the same at everywhere in one board. As for particle boards, due to its uneven paving density and discrepancy between its surface and internal structure, there’s a relatively big difference of cutting resistance on diffrent places of one board. Core-board is made of solid wood slats. Its direction of grain between two slats is different, so when you deal with this kind of board, the prcessing performance is the same with solid wood sometimes.


2. Cutting direction

Wood is a kind of high polymer natural material. It is natural growth and composed of wood fiber which arranged in a certain way. One of the biggest features of wood is anisotropy. So there are different ways of cutting direction. Vertical, horizontal, end and transition cutting in solid wood cutting process can be usually seen.
When cutting solid wood, according to direction of blades relative to wood fiber, wood cutting is divided into longitudinal, transverse, end and longitudinal, longitudinal and transverse cutting direction.

3. Tool rotation direction and feed direction

Choosing right tilt direction of blade edges on your tools according to rotation direction of tool shafts and direction of wood workpiece feeds.

4. Stability of your workpiece

There are several things we should pay attention about stability of tools and workpieces in the cutting process. Workpieces stability refers to the smooth feed of your wood workpiece during cutting process without any beats. To strengten stability of your workpiece, main measures we adopted are to reduce workpiece center of gravity and increase contact area. Therefore, for the vertical installation of forming router bits, large diameter router bits in the form of installation is conducive to improve stability of the workpiece processing, but at the same time stability of the tool has decreased. To improve stability of the tool, except good dynamic balance, we also need its structure, installation size and quality to meet requirements of stability standards, such as the tool rotary frequency and the natural frequency of the tool should be separated by a certain number of values, and different materials of the cantilever installation size of the tool should be limited.

5. Machining surface quality requirements

The quality of wood workpiece’s surface influenced by the surface roughness, geometric dimension and shape and position accuracy. Surface’s quality relates to geometric parameters and shape and location accuracy of the router bit. Also it relates to fitting precision of router bits, stability of router bits, movement precision and vibration of machine tools. Ripples on the surface of router bits highly associated with feeds of per tips on router bits. Therefore, reducing feed speed, increasing rotation speed, number of cutter teeth and increasing diameter of router bits can reduce the surface ripple height and improve surface quality.

According to these 5 principles for choosing woodworking router bits, we can now summarize them to several parts. First, before doing cutting work, you need to make sure your router bit suits for your workpiece’s material. Compred with HSS router bits, carbide router bits with good wear resistance have a wider range application and longer service life. Secondly, due to features of wood board, there are different cutting direction, choosing right router bits for right places. Thirdly, choose blades which have right tilt direction of edges. Besides, make sure your router bits meet standard requirements. Finally, it depends on your workpiece’s surface condition and what kind of surface you want to get.

Konetool provides high quality carbide router bits with different shapes and sizes. If you have any demands, just contact us.

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